PLUG OK license plate
Industry media report on Ford & Toyota views on PHEVss
Jun 19, 2006 (From the CalCars-News archive)
This posting originally appeared at CalCars-News, our newsletter of breaking CalCars and plug-in hybrid news. View the original posting here.
Want more? Become a subscriber to CalCars-News:

Everyone in Detroit (and presumably at auto-makers around the world) reads the trade journals. (We don't have the budget to subscribe.) We hadn't seen a significant story in until we were contacted by a company that works with auto-makers, whose interest was aroused by a long summary of the article in Hampton AutoBeat's AUTOTECH Daily.

Below are excerpts from AUTOTECH, followed by the report for on which it was based. (Both reports report Ford "not knowing" about discussions because they didn't identify them as the CalCars-Andy Frank proposal to which Bill Ford responded at the annual meeting.) The Wards story includes important comments indicating the perspective and level of understanding of people at Ford.

AUTOTECH Friday, June 16: "PLUG-IN HYBRIDS NO SLAM DUNK" The chatter about the potential benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles has been steadily increasing in recent months. But automakers remain somewhat cautious about the technology, observes It points out that several technical and cost hurdles still must be overcome to make such vehicles viable.

Plug-in technology can extend a hybrid vehicle's driving range in full-electric mode by using a larger battery that can partially be recharged through regenerative braking. To be fully recharged, however, the vehicle must be plugged into an electrical outlet, just as an all-electric vehicle. This adds weight and requires advances in battery technology. To some extent, the industry is sending out mixed signals about the readiness of plug-in models. Top executives for Ford Motor Co. and Toyota Motor Corp., for example, have touted the technology's potential at recent company events, only to temper their remarks later.
Redwood City, Calif.-based CalCars boasts that it already has modified several conventional hybrid vehicles for plug-in use. And Kramer says he's in discussions with Ford about possibly partnering on a demonstration fleet of plug-in Escape Hybrids. Ford didn't seem to know anything about such a project, says Ward's -- but it didn't rule it out either.­ar/­ford_plugin_hybrids/­index.html Ford Faces Obstacles in Development of Plug-In Hybrids By Byron Pope, Jun 9, 2006 9:57 AM

Ford Motor Co. Chairman and CEO Bill Ford's remark at the company's annual shareholders meeting last month that the auto maker was looking into 'plug-in' hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs) immediately led to industry speculation Ford was in the process of developing such technology.

"We are very keenly looking at it and working with that technology," Bill Ford told his audience at the time.

However, a Ford spokesman says "a lot more development is needed to make (PHEV technology) commercially viable." Ford is not alone in its thinking.

PHEVs, like traditional hybrids, would recharge their batteries through onboard generators and friction energy recovered from braking.

However, they have the added benefit of having batteries that can be recharged by plugging them into a 120-volt household power outlet, greatly expanding the vehicle's range in electric-only mode and saving additional fuel.

Although Ford officially declines to discuss future product plans, Sue Cischke, vice president-environmental and safety engineering, tells Ward's there are obstacles to developing such technology.

California group wants Ford to make a plug-in Escape Hybrid.

"You read about how ideally (PHEVs) can work, but there are other issues such as added weight, the need for more battery capacity and how it works with the power grid," she says.

"So, Mr. Ford is saying we're looking into it. A lot of people are very much interested in (PHEV technology), and we have to confirm that it is the way to go. Everything is on the table."

Toyota Motor Corp., considered one of the leaders in HEV technology, agrees there are inherent drawbacks to developing PHEVs. "Plug-in HEVs won't be commercially or technologically feasible to build until battery technology improves," Dave Hermance, executive engineer-environmental engineering for Toyota Technical Center USA Inc., recently told Ward's.

Currently, HEVs are equipped with nickel-metal-hydride battery packs, which supplement the power of the vehicle's traditional internal combustion engine. While PHEVs provide a larger electrical charge, today's batteries are not designed for excessive use, unlike consumer electronic devices that can be fully charged and then fully discharged.

Hermance says plugging in HEV batteries causes them to "operate frequently at their minimum and maximum 20% of capacity, which is when most damage occurs." Felix Kramer, a former Silicon Valley entrepreneur, self-proclaimed PHEV guru and founder of - a non-profit group dedicated to making PHEVs a reality - disputes auto makers' claims.

Kramer, whose Redwood City, CA-based group has modified several HEVs into PHEVs, says the technology is viable today, and past vehicles prove the argument of inadequate batteries is not true.

"The best example is the (Toyota) RAV4-EV in the late 1990s," Kramer says of the now-defunct all-electric cross/utility vehicle. "They built those cars and sold them in California, which required the batteries to last 150,000 miles (241,402 km).

"Toyota said they would last 75,000 miles (120,701 km) and would have to be replaced halfway through the vehicle's lifecycle. But today, there are some still on the road with no sign of degradation of the batteries."

Kramer claims his group has approached Ford about forging a partnership to develop a demonstration fleet of plug-in Escape Hybrids. Correspondence is ongoing, he says, but nothing has been agreed upon at this point.

A Ford spokesman says he has "no knowledge of any correspondence," with the group but doesn't rule out the possibility, saying the auto maker receives "thousands of inquiries a year."

In addition to pressure from environmentalists, some elected officials are calling on auto makers to develop PHEVs. On his website, U.S. Rep. Rahm Emanuel, D-IL, calls for the government to "provide credits toward the installation of hybrid plug-in conversion kits."

And in February, during a stop at a Johnson Controls Inc. facility in Milwaukee, President Bush said, "using new lithium ion batteries, engineers will be able to design the next generation of hybrid vehicles, called plug-in hybrids, that can be recharged through a standard electrical outlet."

Dave Szczupak, Ford group vice president of manufacturing-The Americas, says PHEVs have potential, but they're not necessarily a means to an end to innovative powertrain technology.

"I think the idea of having the ability to charge the battery overnight to get even more available energy is maybe just another way to top things off," he says. "It's not the answer that we're all going to have plug-ins. It's just another level (of HEV technology)."


Copyright 2003-09 California Cars Initiative, an activity of the International Humanities Center | Site Map